Control production cost from another angle

2022-07-24
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Control production costs from another angle

the most famous saying about production cost management is "time is money". When China's manufacturing industry is facing structural adjustment and industrial upgrading; When labor cost and material cost are no longer the advantages of manufacturing industry; In the face of inflation... Production cost control has become a challenge that manufacturing workshop management must face

production cost, or workshop cost, consists of four parts: direct material, direct labor, manufacturing cost and energy cost. The cost space in these four aspects has been excavated for more than 30 years. Now there is not much left for the manufacturing industry. It must be controlled from a different angle. This paper discusses the cost control technology and application of workshop management in manufacturing industry from three often neglected angles

cost breakthrough: the "double standard" management of standardized production management

the national standards committee published the gb/t 24742 national standard on September 30, 2009, that is, the graphical symbols used in the process flow chart (in which there is another expression symbol: ○, i.e. small circle), as shown in Table 1

in addition, according to the discussion in p94 page of China machinery and metal magazine in November, 2010, there are five ways for materials to stay on site, namely: scattered, container, bracket, and 10 After setting for one experiment with the same parameters, one batch of sample experiments can be completed in sequence; Car and conveyor belt

Figure 1 the expression symbols of the five ways of material staying

the detailed production process of a product can be accurately described by using the 11 symbols of the above two categories. Such a figure is called "production operation flow chart", as shown in Figure 2

Figure 2 production operation flow chart

if the above production processes can be guaranteed and implemented, they can be called "standard processes", in which the operation content expressed by each symbol is called an "activity". In principle, the work of each activity (or a collection of several consecutive activities) should be completed within a limited time, which can be called "standard man hours". Standard operation and standard man hour are "double standards" in standardized production management

at present, the foundation of double standard management in most Chinese enterprises is relatively weak, which leads to insufficient refinement of production management, and thus the control of production costs cannot be effectively implemented

cost from a global perspective: production process improvement

in manufacturing workshop management, if a standard process is established, it can reduce ineffective labor, shorten production cycle and greatly reduce costs through the improvement of the standard process. Please take a look at the following case: for the process improvement of a medical pin, the figure in the lower half of Figure 3 is the production process flow chart

Figure 3 process analysis table: it can be seen from the analysis before improvement that five handling and three staying times occupy most of the production process, and these are invalid labor. Through the adjustment of workshop layout, the improvement of handling and the improvement of material retention mode, the improved process analysis is shown in Figure 4

Figure 4 process analysis table: there are four methods to improve the breakthrough of

process after improvement:

(1) cancel: is there any activity that can be cancelled? For example, cancel handling, stop, unnecessary inspection, etc

(2) merge: is there any duplicate activity work that can be merged and completed at one time? For example, change from multiple handling to one-time handling

(3) simultaneous: is there any activity that can be performed at the same time? For example, processing while handling

(4) adjust sequence: is it possible to adjust the sequence of activities? Whether the processing efficiency can be improved after adjustment

it can be seen from the chart that the production cycle after improvement is shortened by more than 50% compared with the original due to the reduction of ineffective labor such as handling, staying and quantity inspection. Therefore, to improve the production process and shorten the production cycle is an effective means to improve production efficiency and reduce production costs. It is also an embodiment of production cost control from a global perspective and the philosophy of "time is money". How to improve the process? The following are the steps for process improvement:

(1) use the camera to completely capture all the details of the product production process

(2) according to the table shown in Figure 3 or figure 4, count and obtain the relevant distance, time and person time information, and prepare the corresponding production operation flow chart

(3) according to the process analysis table, refer to the four focus points of process improvement, seek breakthrough points of improvement, and formulate solutions

(4) implement process improvement in the workshop, determine the post repair designer to adopt conventional PID control and formulate corresponding operation manual, etc

(5) repeat the previous work and make continuous improvement

process improvement is not only an important method in industrial engineering, but also a sharp tool for production process improvement. It has a great application prospect and scope in workshop manufacturing management and cost management

cost in details: operation action improvement

the so-called action is the employee's action in the operation process. Because of the structure of the human body, the study of employees' actions at work is a detail of production cost control. As early as the end of the 19th century, Frederick w Taylor, a leading management figure in the United States, began the research and application of action, making outstanding contributions to the improvement of production efficiency and cost reduction in the manufacturing industry. Action improvement divides people's operation actions into three categories, namely:

(1) necessary actions. For example, take, use and combine 9 actions

(2) actions that delay the first type. For example, consider and search

(3) no operation. For example, 4 actions such as rest and preparation

there are 4 focus points for action improvement, as shown in Table 2

in combination with the above four principles, the following 11 key points can be applied to action improvement according to the specific situation of the workshop, as shown in Table 3

now let's study a case. Please see Figure 5, which is a photo of a post in the workshop of a machinery company. The operator takes the part (shown in the large ellipse) with his right hand and hands it to his left hand, then takes another small part (shown in the small ellipse) with his right hand to the left, and then carries out spot welding

Figure 5 photos of action improvement cases

it is obvious that all his actions must be carried out one by one, that is, "in series", which obviously violates the first of the 11 key points of action improvement, that is, the movement of both hands towards each other. If the parts shown in the large ellipse are placed on the left side, and the small parts shown in the small ellipse required by the right hand are placed on the right side if oil leakage is found, at this time, both hands can reach out to the left and right respectively at the same time, that is, "parallel connection". In this way, the working efficiency of operators can be improved by at least 20% of the time, the working efficiency can be improved, and the production cost can be reduced

the action improvement steps are similar to the process improvement steps:

(1) use the camera to capture at least two whole processes of the operator's operation

(2) carefully observe the action of each operation after importing the video into the computer

(3) apply 11 key points to improve and seek the best operation action

(4) carry out training for laboratory workers at the beginning or end of normal operation, and revise corresponding operation manual and other documents

(5) repeat the above work and continuously improve the operation

action improvement is also an important method in industrial engineering. Since its birth, it has made great contributions to the on-site management of the manufacturing industry, continuously improving the value of people's actions at work, shortening the labor time, greatly improving the production efficiency and reducing the production cost. At this time, we can not only say that "time is money", but also "action is money"

today, when the workshop management of Chinese manufacturing enterprises is facing many challenges, production cost control must start with the seven wastes in lean production management on the basis of strengthening conventional cost management, which is also a tool that Chinese production managers must master. Eliminating waste means reducing costs. Therefore, the direction of cost control must be shifted to eliminating these seven wastes:

waste of waiting: mainly manifested in unbalanced operations, improper operation arrangement, waiting for materials, poor quality, etc

waste of handling: excessive handling caused by unreasonable workshop layout and unscientific material retention

waste of defective products: it is mainly caused by the process production without standard confirmation or the standard confirmation without standard operation, and the management is not strict and lax

waste of action: it is mainly manifested in unscientific action in the operation industry, more invalid labor, etc

waste of processing: it is mainly manifested in unbalanced management of manufacturing process and lax control of production plan

waste of inventory: it is mainly manifested in local mass inventory caused by streamline production without combining the requirements of the master production plan

waste caused by excessive (or early) manufacturing: the main manifestation is that the management believes that excessive and early manufacturing can improve efficiency or reduce capacity loss and balance workshop productivity. (end)

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